# Chapter 34 - Sets in Python

- Authors

- Ms. Samavi Salman
- Dr. Rao Muhammad Adeel Nawab

- Supporting Material

## Quick Recap

- Quick Recap – Tuple in Python

**In previous Chapter, I presented**

**Tuple****Definition****Tuples are****core data structures****in Python that can****store****an****ordered sequence****of items****Individual****values in a****tuple****are called****items****. Tuples can****store****values of any****data type**

**Syntax****A Tuple can be declared using two methods****Method 1: Use ()****Method 2: Use tuple() Built in Function**

**Declaring an Empty Tuple****Declare****an Empty Tuple using the following two Methods****Method 1: Use ()****Method 2: Use tuple() Built in Function**

**Initializing a Tuple****Initialize a Tuple using the following two Methods****Method 1: Building a Complete Tuple****Method 2: Building a Tuple Incrementally**

**Accessing Elements of a Tuple****There are three methods to access element(s) of a Tuple****Method 1 –****Access****Element(s) of a****Tuple using****Indexing****Method 2 –****Access****Element(s) of a Tuple using****Negative Indexing****Method 3 –****Access****Element(s) of a Tuple using****Slicing**

**Operations on Tuple****Operation 1 – Creation****Operation 2 – Insertion****Operation 3 – Traversal****Operation 4 – Searching****Operation 5 – Sorting****Operation 6 – Merging****Operation 7 – Updation****Operation 8 – Deletion**

**Nested Tuple****Definition****A Nest Tuple is a Tuple of Tuple(s)**

**Access Elements of a Nested Tuple****You can****access****individual items in a Nested Tuple using****multiple indexes**

**Add Elements in a Nested Tuple****Add element(s) in a Nested Tuple using****Method 1 –****Add****a New Element at the Start of a Nested Tuple****Method 2 –****Add****a New Element at the End of a Nested Tuple****Method 3 –****Add****a New Element at a Desired Location of a Nested Tuple**

**Methods to Traverse a Tuple****Traverse****a Tuple****Method 1: Traversing an Entire Nested Tuple****Method 2: Traversing a Nested Tuple (Element by Element)**

**Update Elements of a Nested Tuple****The value of a specific item in a Nested Tuple is unchanged even if it is converted into a List. As Tuple are immutable.**

**Remove Elements from a Nested Tuple****There are three methods to remove element(s) in a Nested Tuple****Method 1 –****Remove****a New Element at the Start of a Nested Tuple****Method 2 –****Remove****a New Element at the End of a Nested Tuple****Method 3 –****Remove****a New Element at a Desired Location of a Nested Tuple**

## Basics of Sets

- Sets

**Definition****The set—an****unordered****and****unindexed collection****of****unique****and****immutable****objects that****supports****operations corresponding to****mathematical set theory****. An item appears only****once****in a****set****,****no matter****how many****times****it is****added**

**Purpose****A set is an****unordered****collection of items.****Every set element is****unique****(no duplicates) and must be****immutable****(cannot be changed). However, a****set itself****is****mutable****. We can****add****or****remove items****from it.****Sets are used to store multiple items in a single variable.**

**Importance****Set operations have a****variety****of common uses, some more practical than mathematical.****Filter duplicates****out of other collections****Keep track****of where you’ve already been when****traversing****a graph or other****cyclic structure****.****They are important in****mathematics****.****Because every field of mathematics uses or refers to****sets****in some way. They are important for****building****more****complex mathematical structure****.**

**Advantages****Because sets cannot have****multiple occurrences****of the****same****element, it makes sets****highly****useful to efficiently****remove duplicate****values from a tuple and to perform common****math operations****like****unions****and****intersections****.****The major advantage of using a set is that it has a****highly optimized method****for****checking****whether a specific element is****contained****in the set.****This is based on a****data****structure known as a****hash table****.**

**Disadvantage****Since sets****are****unordered, we****cannot access****items using****indexes**

**Characteristics****Set object contains one or more items, not necessarily of the same type, which are separated by a comma and enclosed in curly brackets {}.****The elements in the set cannot be duplicates.****The elements in the set are immutable(cannot be modified) but the set as a whole is mutable.****There is no index attached to any element in a python set. So they do not support any indexing or slicing operation.****The order of elements in the set is not necessarily the same as the order given at the time of assignment. Python optimizes the structure of a set for performing operations over it, as defined in mathematics.**

**Examples****Kitchen, Set of crockery****School Bag, Set of Books****Universe, Set of Galaxies and Stars****Shopping Malls, Set of Food Items, Set of HouseHold etc.****Wardrobe – Set of Clothes**

- Array vs. List vs. Tuple vs. Set vs. Dictionary

## Collection | ## Order | ## Changeable | ## Duplicate | ## Nesting |

Array | Ordered | Changeable | Allows Duplicate Members | Allows Nesting |

List | Ordered | Changeable | Allows Duplicate Members | Allows Nesting |

Tuple | Ordered | Unchangeable | Allows Duplicate Members | Allows Nesting |

Set | Unordered and Unindexed | Changeable | No Duplicate Members | Allows Nesting |

Dictionary | Ordered | Changeable | No Duplicate Members | Allows Nesting |

** **

## Declaring a Set

- Set Declaration

**A Set can be declared using two methods****Method 1: Use {}****Method 2: Use set() Function**

**In Sha Allah, in next Slides, I will present both methods in detail**

- Syntax - Method 1 (Use {})

**The Syntax to declare a Set using {} is as follows**

` ````
```SET_NAME = {
,
,
,
.
.
.
,
,
}

- Syntax – Method 2 (Use set() Function)

**The Syntax to declare a Set using set() Built in Function is as follows**

` ````
```SET_NAME = set((
,
,
,
.
.
.
,
))

## Declaring an Empty Set

- Declaring an Empty Set

**In Sha Allah, in the next Slides, I will show how to declare an Empty Set using the following two Methods****Method 1: Use {}****Method 2: Use set() Built in Function**

- Example 1 – Declaring an Empty Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Declaring an Empty Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to declare an empty set using {} and set() Function
'''
try:
# Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}
print("---Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}---")
# Declare an Empty Set
car_companies_1 = {}
# Display Data Values of a Set
print("Data Values of Set:", car_companies_1)
# Display Data-Type of a Set using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Set:", type(car_companies_1))
# Display Length of a Set using len() Function
print("Length of Set:", len(car_companies_1))
except:
print("Error Occurred")
print("---------------------------------------------------------")
try:
# Declare an Empty Set - Method 2: Use set() Function
print("---Declare an Empty Set - Use set() Function---")
# Declare an Empty Set
car_companies_2 = set()
# Display Data Values of a Set
print("Data Values of Set:", car_companies_2)
# Display Data-Type of a Set using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Set:", type(car_companies_2))
# Display Length of a Set using len() Function
print("Length of Set:", len(car_companies_2))
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}---
Data Values of Set: {}
Data-Type of Set:
Length of Set: 0
---------------------------------------------------------
---Declare an Empty Set - Use set() Function---
Data Values of Set: set()
Data-Type of Set:
Length of Set: 0

- Example 1 - Variable Initialization vs Array Initialization

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Declaring an Empty Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to declare an empty set using {} and set() Function
'''
try:
# Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}
print("---Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}---")
# Declare an Empty Set
prime_numbers_1 = {}
# Display Data Values of a Set
print("Data Values of Set:", prime_numbers_1)
# Display Data-Type of a Set using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Set:", type(prime_numbers_1))
# Display Length of a Set using len() Function
print("Length of Set:", len(prime_numbers_1))
except:
print("Error Occurred")
print("---------------------------------------------------------")
try:
# Declare an Empty Set - Method 2: Use set() Function
print("---Declare an Empty Set - Use set() Function---")
# Declare an Empty Set
prime_numbers_2 = set()
# Display Data Values of a Set
print("Data Values of Set:", prime_numbers_2)
# Display Data-Type of a Set using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Set:", type(prime_numbers_2))
# Display Length of a Set using len() Function
print("Length of Set:", len(prime_numbers_2))
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}---
Data Values of Set: {}
Data-Type of Set:
Length of Set: 0
---------------------------------------------------------
---Declare an Empty Set - Use set() Function---
Data Values of Set: set()
Data-Type of Set:
Length of Set: 0

- Example 3 - Variable Initialization vs Array Initialization

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Declaring an Empty Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to declare an empty set using {} and set() Function
'''
try:
# Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}
print("---Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}---")
# Declare an Empty Set
vowels_1 = {}
# Display Data Values of a Set
print("Data Values of Set:", vowels_1)
# Display Data-Type of a Set using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Set:", type(vowels_1))
# Display Length of a Set using len() Function
print("Length of Set:", len(vowels_1))
except:
print("Error Occurred")
print("---------------------------------------------------------")
try:
# Declare an Empty Set - Method 2: Use set() Function
print("---Declare an Empty Set - Use set() Function---")
# Declare an Empty Set
vowels_2= set()
# Display Data Values of a Set
print("Data Values of Set:", vowels_2)
# Display Data-Type of a Set using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Set:", type(vowels_2))
# Display Length of a Set using len() Function
print("Length of Set:", len(vowels_2))
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}---
Data Values of Set: {}
Data-Type of Set:
Length of Set: 0
---------------------------------------------------------
---Declare an Empty Set - Use set() Function---
Data Values of Set: set()
Data-Type of Set:
Length of Set: 0

## Initializing a Set

- Initializing a Set

**In Sha Allah, in the next Slides, I will show how to initialize a Set using the following two Methods****Method 1: Building a Complete Set****Method 2: Building a Set Incrementally**

## Initializing a Set - Method 1: Building a Complete Set

- Initializing a Set - Method 1: Building a Complete Set

**In Sha Allah, I will build a complete set using two Approaches****Approach 1: Use {}****Approach 2: Use set() Built in Function**

- Example 1 – Initializing a Set - Method 1: Building a Complete Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Initialize a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to initialize a complete set and display its content (data values) on the Output Screen
'''
try:
# Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}
print("---Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}---")
# Declare an Empty Set
car_companies_1 = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
# Display Data Values of a Set
print("Data Values of Set:", car_companies_1)
# Display Data-Type of a Set using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Set:", type(car_companies_1))
# Display Length of a Set using len() Function
print("Length of Set:", len(car_companies_1))
except:
print("Error Occurred")
print("---------------------------------------------------------")
try:
# Declare an Empty Set - Method 2: Use set() Function
print("---Declare an Empty Set - Use set() Function---")
# Declare an Empty Set
car_companies_2 = set(('Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'))
# Display Data Values of a Set
print("Data Values of Set:", car_companies_2)
# Display Data-Type of a Set using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Set:", type(car_companies_2))
# Display Length of a Set using len() Function
print("Length of Set:", len(car_companies_2))
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}---
Data Values of Set: {'Toyota', 'Kia', 'Hyundai', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Changan'}
Data-Type of Set:
Length of Set: 6
---------------------------------------------------------
---Declare an Empty Set - Use set() Function---
Data Values of Set: {'Toyota', 'Kia', 'Hyundai', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Changan'}
Data-Type of Set:
Length of Set: 6

- Example 2 – Initializing a Set - Method 1: Building a Complete Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Initialize a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to initialize a complete set and display its content (data values) on the Output Screen
'''
try:
# Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}
print("---Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}---")
# Declare an Empty Set
prime_numbers_1 = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
# Display Data Values of a Set
print("Data Values of Set:", prime_numbers_1)
# Display Data-Type of a Set using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Set:", type(prime_numbers_1))
# Display Length of a Set using len() Function
print("Length of Set:", len(prime_numbers_1))
except:
print("Error Occurred")
print("---------------------------------------------------------")
try:
# Declare an Empty Set - Method 2: Use set() Function
print("---Declare an Empty Set - Use set() Function---")
# Declare an Empty Set
prime_numbers_2 = set((2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19))
# Display Data Values of a Set
print("Data Values of Set:", prime_numbers_2)
# Display Data-Type of a Set using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Set:", type(prime_numbers_2))
# Display Length of a Set using len() Function
print("Length of Set:", len(prime_numbers_2))
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}---
Data Values of Set: {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
Data-Type of Set:
Length of Set: 8
---------------------------------------------------------
---Declare an Empty Set - Use set() Function---
Data Values of Set: {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
Data-Type of Set:
Length of Set: 8

- Example 3 – Initializing a Set - Method 1: Building a Complete Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Initialize a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to initialize a complete set and display its content (data values) on the Output Screen
'''
try:
# Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}
print("---Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}---")
# Declare an Empty Set
vowels_1 = { 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u'}
# Display Data Values of a Set
print("Data Values of Set:", vowels_1)
# Display Data-Type of a Set using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Set:", type(vowels_1))
# Display Length of a Set using len() Function
print("Length of Set:", len(vowels_1))
except:
print("Error Occurred")
print("---------------------------------------------------------")
try:
# Declare an Empty Set - Method 2: Use set() Function
print("---Declare an Empty Set - Use set() Function---")
# Declare an Empty Set
vowels_2= set(('a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u'))
# Display Data Values of a Set
print("Data Values of Set:", vowels_2)
# Display Data-Type of a Set using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Set:", type(vowels_2))
# Display Length of a Set using len() Function
print("Length of Set:", len(vowels_2))
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Declare an Empty Set - Method 1: Use {}---
Data Values of Set: {'u', 'o', 'e', 'i', 'a'}
Data-Type of Set:
Length of Set: 5
---------------------------------------------------------
---Declare an Empty Set - Use set() Function---
Data Values of Set: {'u', 'o', 'e', 'i', 'a'}
Data-Type of Set:
Length of Set: 5

## Initializing a Set - Method 2: Building a Set Incrementally

- Initializing a Set - Method 2: Building a Set Incrementally

**In Sha Allah, in this Example, we will show how to Initialize a Set using following approach:****Approach 1: Use add() Built-in Function**

- Example 1 - Initializing a Set – Method 2: Building a Set Incrementally

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Initialize a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to initialize a set incrementally and display its content (data values) on the Output Screen
'''
try:
# Set Initialization using {}
print("---Initialize a Set - Use {}---")
car_companies = {''}
# Before Adding Elements in Set
print("Before Adding Elements in Set \n", car_companies)
# Building a Set Incrementally
car_companies.add('Changan')
car_companies.add('Suzuki')
car_companies.add('Honda')
car_companies.add('Toyota')
car_companies.add('Hyundai')
car_companies.add('Kia')
# After Adding Elements in Set
print("After Adding Elements in Set \n", car_companies)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Initialize a Set - Use {}---
Before Adding Elements in Set
{''}
After Adding Elements in Set
{'', 'Hyundai', 'Changan', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Suzuki', 'Kia'}

- Example 2 - Initializing a Set – Method 2: Building a Set Incrementally

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Initialize a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to initialize a set incrementally and display its content (data values) on the Output Screen
'''
try:
# Set Initialization using {}
print("---Initialize a Set - Use {}---")
prime_numbers = {''}
# Before Adding Elements in Set
print("Before Adding Elements in Set \n", prime_numbers)
# Building a Set Incrementally
prime_numbers.add(2)
prime_numbers.add(3)
prime_numbers.add(5)
prime_numbers.add(7)
prime_numbers.add(11)
prime_numbers.add(13)
prime_numbers.add(17)
prime_numbers.add(19)
# After Adding Elements in Set
print("After Adding Elements in Set \n", prime_numbers)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Initialize a Set - Use {}---
Before Adding Elements in Set
{''}
After Adding Elements in Set
{'', 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}

- Example 3 - Initializing a Set – Method 2: Building a Set Incrementally

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Initialize a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to initialize a set incrementally and display its content (data values) on the Output Screen
'''
try:
# Set Initialization using {}
print("---Initialize a Set - Use {}---")
vowels = {''}
# Before Adding Elements in Set
print("Before Adding Elements in Set \n", vowels)
# Building a Set Incrementally
vowels.add('a')
vowels.add('e')
vowels.add('i')
vowels.add('o')
vowels.add('u')
# After Adding Elements in Set
print("After Adding Elements in Set \n", vowels)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Initialize a Set - Use {}---
Before Adding Elements in Set
{''}
After Adding Elements in Set
{'', 'o', 'a', 'u', 'e', 'i'}

### TODO and Your Turn

Todo Tasks

Your Turn Tasks

Todo Tasks

**TODO Task 1**

**Task**- Declare and Initialize a Set called ghazwa_in_Islam using the {} and set() Function?

**Note**- The elements of ghazwa_in_Islam are as follows
- Badr
- Uhud
- Khandaq
- Banu Qurayza
- Banu l-Mustaliq
- Khaybar
- Conquest of Mecca
- Hunayn
- Al-Ta’if

- The elements of ghazwa_in_Islam are as follows

Your Turn Tasks

**Your Turn Task 1**

**Task**- Declare and Initialize a Set called ghazwa_in_Islam using the {} and set() Function?

## Accessing Elements of a Set

- Access Element(s) of a Set

**We****cannot access individual values****in a set. We can only****access****all the elements****together****by****looping****through the****set**

- Example 1 - Access Element(s) of a Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Access Element(s) of Sets
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to access element(s) of a Set
'''
try:
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
# Access Element(s) of a Set by Iterating through Elements Altogether
print("---Access Element(s) of a Set by Iterating through Elements---")
for elements in car_companies:
print(elements)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Access Element(s) of a Set by Iterating through Elements---
Suzuki
Honda
Changan
Toyota
Kia
Hyundai

- Example 2 - Access Element(s) of a Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Access Element(s) of Sets
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to access element(s) of a Set
'''
try:
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
# Access Element(s) of a Set by Iterating through Elements Altogether
print("---Access Element(s) of a Set by Iterating through Elements---")
for elements in prime_numbers:
print(elements)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Access Element(s) of a Set by Iterating through Elements---
2
3
5
7
11
13
17
19

- Example 3 - Access Element(s) of a Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Access Element(s) of Sets
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to access element(s) of a Set
'''
try:
vowels = { 'a','e','i','o','u'}
# Access Element(s) of a Set by Iterating through Elements Altogether
print("---Access Element(s) of a Set by Iterating through Elements---")
for elements in vowels:
print(elements)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Access Element(s) of a Set by Iterating through Elements---
e
a
u
i
o

### TODO and Your Turn

Todo Tasks

Your Turn Tasks

Todo Tasks

**TODO Task 1**

**Task**- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below
- prophets = {‘Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH)’, ‘Hazrat Ibrahim (A.S.)’, ‘Hazrat Mosa (A.S.)’, ‘Hazrat Isa (A.S.)’, ‘Hazrat Adam (A.S.)’}
- ages = {25, 30, 15, 20, 22, 33}

**Questions**- Access Elements of the prophets and ages by Iterating through the Elements of a Set

- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below

Your Turn Tasks

**Your Turn Task 1**

**Task**- Consider two Sets (similar to the ones given in TODO Task 1) and answer the questions given below

**Questions**- Access Elements of the prophets and ages by Iterating through the Elements of a Set

## Operations on Sets

## Operation 1 – Creation

- Methods to Create a Sets

**I have already presented methods to create a Set in the previous Section i.e.,****Sets Initialization**

## Operation 2 – Insertion

- Methods to Add Element(s) in a Set

**Sets are unordered****Unordered means when we display the elements of a set, it will come out in a random order**

**In Sha Allah, in next Slides, I will present a method to add element(s) in a Set****Method 1 –****Add****New Element(s)****in a Set using add() Function**

- add() Function

**Function Name****add()**

**Syntax**

` ````
```set.add(obj)

**Purpose****The main purpose of add() Function is to****add data value(s) in a Set**

## Add a New Element in a Set using add() Function

- Example 1 - Add a New Element in a Set using add() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Add a New Element in a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to add a new element in a set using add() function
'''
try:
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai'}
# Before Adding Elements in Set
print("Before Adding Elements in Set \n", car_companies)
# Add a New Element using add() Function
car_companies.add('Kia')
# After Adding Elements in Set
print("After Adding Elements in Set \n", car_companies)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```Before Adding Elements in Set
{'Suzuki', 'Hyundai', 'Changan', 'Honda', 'Toyota'}
After Adding Elements in Set
{'Suzuki', 'Hyundai', 'Changan', 'Honda', 'Kia', 'Toyota'}

- Example 2 - Add a New Element in a Set using add() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Add a New Element in a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to add a new element in a set using add() function
'''
try:
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
# Before Adding Elements in Set
print("Before Adding Elements in Set \n", prime_numbers)
# Add a New Element using add() Function
prime_numbers.add(21)
# After Adding Elements in Set
print("After Adding Elements in Set \n", prime_numbers)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```Before Adding Elements in Set
{2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
After Adding Elements in Set
{2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 21}

- Example 3 - Add a New Element in a Set using add() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Add a New Element in a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to add a new element in a set using add() function
'''
try:
vowels = { 'a','e','o','u'}
# Before Adding Elements in Set
print("Before Adding Elements in Set \n", vowels)
# Add a New Element using add() Function
vowels.add('i')
# After Adding Elements in Set
print("After Adding Elements in Set \n", vowels)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```Before Adding Elements in Set
{'u', 'a', 'e', 'o'}
After Adding Elements in Set
{'e', 'a', 'o', 'u', 'i'}

### TODO and Your Turn

Todo Tasks

Your Turn Tasks

Todo Tasks

**TODO Task 1**

**Task**- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below
- prophets = {‘Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH)’, ‘Hazrat Ibrahim (A.S.)’, ‘Hazrat Mosa (A.S.)’, ‘Hazrat Isa (A.S.)’, ‘Hazrat Adam (A.S.)’}
- ages = {25, 30, 15, 20, 22, 33}

**Questions**- Insert Elements to prophets and ages Sets using add() Function (as shown in this Chapter)

- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below

Your Turn Tasks

**Your Turn Task 1**

**Task**- Consider two Sets (similar to the ones given in TODO Task 1) and answer the questions given below

**Questions**- Insert Elements to prophets and ages Sets using add() Function (as shown in this Chapter)

## Operation 3 – Traverse

- Methods to Traverse a Set

**I have already presented methods to traverse a Set in the previous Section i.e.,****Access Element(s) of a Set**

## Operation 4 – Searching

- Methods to Search Element(s) from a Set

**In Sha Allah, in next Slides, I will present a method to search element(s) from a Set****Method 1: Search a Specific Element from a Set****Method 2: Search Multiple Elements from a Set**

## Method 1: Search a Specific Element from a Set

- Example 1 - Search a Specific Element from a Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Search a Specific Element from a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to search a specific element from a set
'''
# Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Element in a Set
try:
# Initialize a Set
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
print("---Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Element in a Set---")
element = 'Honda'
# Using in operator to Search Element in a Set
if element in car_companies:
print(element + " is in Set")
else:
print(element + " is not in Set")
except:
print('Error Occurred')
print("-------------------------------------------")
# Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Element in a Set
try:
# Initialize a Set
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
print("---Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Element in a Set---")
element = 'Toyota'
# Using not in operator to Search Element in a Set
if element not in car_companies:
print(element + " is not in Set")
else:
print(element + " is in Set")
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Element in a Set---
Honda is in Set
-------------------------------------------
---Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Element in a Set---
Toyota is in Set

- Example 2 - Search a Specific Element from a Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Search a Specific Element from a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to search a specific element from a set
'''
# Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Element in a Set
try:
# Initialize a Set
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
print("---Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Element in a Set---")
element = "100"
# Using in operator to Search Element in a Set
if element in prime_numbers:
print(element + " is in Set")
else:
print(element + " is not in Set")
except:
print('Error Occurred')
print("-------------------------------------------")
# Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Element in a Set
try:
# Initialize a Set
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
print("---Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Element in a Set---")
element = "60"
# Using not in operator to Search Element in a Set
if element not in prime_numbers:
print(element + " is not in Set")
else:
print(element + " is in Set")
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Element in a Set---
100 is not in Set
-------------------------------------------
---Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Element in a Set---
60 is not in Set

- Example 3 - Search a Specific Element from a Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Search a Specific Element from a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to search a specific element from a set
'''
# Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Element in a Set
try:
# Initialize a Set
vowels = {'a','e','i','o','u'}
print("---Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Element in a Set---")
element = 'u'
# Using in operator to Search Element in a Set
if element in vowels:
print(element + " is in Set")
else:
print(element + " is not in Set")
except:
print('Error Occurred')
print("-------------------------------------------")
# Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Element in a Set
try:
# Initialize a Set
vowels = {'a','e','i','o','u'}
print("---Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Element in a Set---")
element = 's'
# Using not in operator to Search Element in a Set
if element not in vowels:
print(element + " is not in Set")
else:
print(element + " is in Set")
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Element in a Set---
u is in Set
-------------------------------------------
---Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Element in a Set---
s is not in Set

## Method 2: Search Multiple Elements from a Set

- Example 1 - Search Multiple Elements from a Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Search Multiple Elements from a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to search multiple elements from a set
'''
# Approach I – Using in Operator to search multiple elements from a set
try:
# Initialize a Set
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
print("---Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Elements in a Set---")
# Using in operator to Search Elements in a Set
if 'Honda' in car_companies or 'Toyota' in car_companies:
print("Car is in Set")
else:
print("Car is not in Set")
except:
print('Error Occurred')
print("-------------------------------------------")
# Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Multiple Elements from a Set
try:
# Initialize a Set
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
print("---Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Elements in a Set---")
# Using not in operator to Search Elements in a Set
if 'Yamaha' not in car_companies and 'Toyota' not in car_companies:
print("Car is not in Set")
else:
print("Car is in Set")
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Elements in a Set---
Car is in Set
-------------------------------------------
---Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Elements in a Set---
Car is in Set

- Example 2 - Search Multiple Elements from a Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_nam = Search Multiple Elements from a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to search multiple elements from a set
'''
# Approach I – Using in Operator to search multiple elements from a set
try:
# Initialize a Set
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
print("---Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Elements in a Set---")
# Using in operator to Search Elements in a Set
if "21" in prime_numbers or "65" in prime_numbers:
print("Number is in Set")
else:
print("Number is not in Set")
except:
print('Error Occurred')
print("-------------------------------------------")
# Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Multiple Elements from a Set
try:
# Initialize a Set
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
print("---Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Elements in a Set---")
# Using not in operator to Search Elements in a Set
if "45" in prime_numbers or "13" in prime_numbers:
print("Number is not in Set")
else:
print("Number is in Set")
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Elements in a Set---
Number is not in Set
-------------------------------------------
---Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Elements in a Set---
Number is in Set

- Example 3 - Search Multiple Elements from a Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Search Multiple Elements from a Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to search multiple elements from a set
'''
# Approach I – Using in Operator to search multiple elements from a set
try:
# Initialize a Set
vowels = {'a','e','i','o','u'}
print("---Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Elements in a Set---")
# Using in operator to Search Elements in a Set
if 'a' in vowels or 't' in vowels:
print("alphabet is in Set")
else:
print("alphabet is not in Set")
except:
print('Error Occurred')
print("-------------------------------------------")
# Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Multiple Elements from a Set
try:
# Initialize a Set
vowels = {'a','e','i','o','u'}
print("---Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Elements in a Set---")
# Using not in operator to Search Elements in a Set
if 'b' in vowels or 'm' in vowels:
print("alphabet is in Set")
else:
print("alphabet is not in Set")
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Approach I – Using in Operator to Search Elements in a Set---
alphabet is in Set
-------------------------------------------
---Approach II – Using not in Operator to Search Elements in a Set---
alphabet is not in Set

### TODO and Your Turn

Todo Tasks

Your Turn Tasks

Todo Tasks

**TODO Task 1**

- Task
- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below
- prophets = {‘Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH)’, ‘Hazrat Ibrahim (A.S.)’, ‘Hazrat Mosa (A.S.)’, ‘Hazrat Isa (A.S.)’, ‘Hazrat Adam (A.S.)’}
- ages = {25, 30, 15, 20, 22, 33}

- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below
**Questions**- Search Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)
- Method 1: Search a Specific Element from a Set
- Method 2: Search Multiple Elements from a Set

- Search Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)

Your Turn Tasks

**Your Turn Task 1**

**Task**- Consider two Sets (similar to the ones given in TODO Task 1) and answer the questions given below

**Questions**- Search Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)
- Method 1: Search a Specific Element from a Set
- Method 2: Search Multiple Elements from a Set

- Search Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)

## Operation 5 – Sorting

- Methods to Sorting a Set

**In Sha Allah, in next Slides, I will present three methods of sorting a Set****Method 1: Sort a Set Alphabetically****Method 2: Sort a Set in Ascending Order****Method 3: Sort a Set in Descending Order**

- sorted() Function

**Function Name****sorted()**

**Syntax**

` ````
```set.sorted([func])
OR
set.sort(key, reverse)

**Purpose****The main purpose of sorted() function is to****Alphabetically****sort a Set**

## Sort a Set Alphabetically

- Example 1 – Sort a Set Alphabetically – Using sorted() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Sort a Set Alphabetically
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to sort a Set alphabetically
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
print('---Original Set before using sorted() Function---')
print(car_companies)
# Using sorted() Function to sort a Set Alphabetically
sorted_order = sorted(car_companies)
print('---New Set after using sorted() Function---')
print(sorted_order)
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Original Set before using sorted() Function---
{'Suzuki', 'Hyundai', 'Honda', 'Changan', 'Toyota', 'Kia'}
---New Set after using sorted() Function---
['Changan', 'Honda', 'Hyundai', 'Kia', 'Suzuki', 'Toyota']

- Example 2 – Sort a Set Alphabetically – Using sorted() Function

` ````
```''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Sort a Set Alphabetically
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to sort a Set alphabetically
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
print('---Original Set before using sorted() Function---')
print(prime_numbers)
# Using sorted() Function to sort a Set Alphabetically
sorted_order = sorted(prime_numbers)
print('---New Set after using sorted() Function---')
print(sorted_order)
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Original Set before using sorted() Function---
{2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
---New Set after using sorted() Function---
[2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19]

- Example 3 – Sort a Set Alphabetically – Using sorted() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Sort a Set Alphabetically
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to sort a Set alphabetically
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
vowels = { 'a','e','i','o','u'}
print('---Original Set before using sorted() Function---')
print(vowels)
# Using sorted() Function to sort a Set Alphabetically
sorted_order = sorted(vowels)
print('---New Set after using sorted() Function---')
print(sorted_order)
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Original Set before using sorted() Function---
{'a', 'u', 'i', 'o', 'e'}
---New Set after using sorted() Function---
['a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u']

## Sort a Set in Ascending Order

- Example 1 – Sort a Set in Ascending Order – Using sorted() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Sort a Set in Ascending Order
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to sort a Set in ascending order
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
print('---Original Set before using sorted() Function---')
print(car_companies)
# Using sorted() Function to sort a Set in Ascending Order
sorted_order = sorted(car_companies, reverse = False)
print('---New Set after using sorted() Function---')
print(sorted_order)
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Original Set before using sorted() Function---
{'Kia', 'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Hyundai', 'Honda', 'Toyota'}
---New Set after using sorted() Function---
['Changan', 'Honda', 'Hyundai', 'Kia', 'Suzuki', 'Toyota']

- Example 2 – Sort a Set in Ascending Order – Using sorted() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Sort a Set in Ascending Order
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to sort a Set in ascending order
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
print('---Original Set before using sorted() Function---')
print(prime_numbers)
# Using sorted() Function to sort a Set in Ascending Order
sorted_order = sorted(prime_numbers, reverse = False)
print('---New Set after using sorted() Function---')
print(sorted_order)
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Original Set before using sorted() Function---
{2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
---New Set after using sorted() Function---
[2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19]

- Example 3 – Sort a Set in Ascending Order – Using sorted() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Sort a Set in Ascending Order
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to sort a Set in ascending order
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
vowels = { 'a','e','i','o','u'}
print('---Original Set before using sorted() Function---')
print(vowels)
# Using sorted() Function to sort a Set in Ascending Order
sorted_order = sorted(vowels, reverse = False)
print('---New Set after using sorted() Function---')
print(sorted_order)
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Original Set before using sorted() Function---
{'o', 'e', 'u', 'i', 'a'}
---New Set after using sorted() Function---
['a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u']

## Sort a Set in Descending Order

- Example 1 – Sort a Set in Descending Order – Using sorted() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Sort a Set in Descending Order
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to sort a Set in descending order
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
print('---Original Set before using sorted() Function---')
print(car_companies)
# Using sorted() Function to sort a Set in Descending Order
sorted_order = sorted(car_companies, reverse = True)
print('---New Set after using sorted() Function---')
print(sorted_order)
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Original Set before using sorted() Function---
{'Kia', 'Hyundai', 'Suzuki', 'Changan', 'Toyota', 'Honda'}
---New Set after using sorted() Function---
['Toyota', 'Suzuki', 'Kia', 'Hyundai', 'Honda', 'Changan']

- Example 2 – Sort a Set in Descending Order – Using sorted() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Sort a Set in Descending Order
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to sort a Set in descending order
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
print('---Original Set before using sorted() Function---')
print(prime_numbers)
# Using sorted() Function to sort a Set in Descending Order
sorted_order = sorted(prime_numbers, reverse = True)
print('---New Set after using sorted() Function---')
print(sorted_order)
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Original Set before using sorted() Function---
{2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
---New Set after using sorted() Function---
[19, 17, 13, 11, 7, 5, 3, 2]

- Example 3 – Sort a Set in Descending Order – Using sorted() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Sort a Set in Descending Order
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to sort a Set in descending order
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
vowels = { 'a','e','i','o','u'}
print('---Original Set before using sorted() Function---')
print(vowels)
# Using sorted() Function to sort a Set in Descending Order
sorted_order = sorted(vowels, reverse = True)
print('---New Set after using sorted() Function---')
print(sorted_order)
except:
print('Error Occurred')

` ````
```---Original Set before using sorted() Function---
{'i', 'o', 'u', 'e', 'a'}
---New Set after using sorted() Function---
['u', 'o', 'i', 'e', 'a']

### TODO and Your Turn

Todo Tasks

Your Turn Tasks

Todo Tasks

**TODO Task 1**

**Task**- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below
- ages = {25, 30, 15, 20, 22, 33}

**Questions**- Sort Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)
- Method 1: Sort a Set Alphabetically
- Method 2: Sort a Set in Ascending Order
- Method 3: Sort a Set in Descending Order

- Sort Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)

- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below

Your Turn Tasks

**Your Turn Task 1**

**Task**- Consider two Sets (similar to the ones given in TODO Task 1) and answer the questions given below

**Questions**- Sort Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)
- Method 1: Sort a Set Alphabetically
- Method 2: Sort a Set in Ascending Order
- Method 3: Sort a Set in Descending Order

- Sort Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)

## Operation 6 – Merge

- Methods of Merging Sets

**In Sha Allah, in next Slides, I will present two methods to merge / join Sets****Method 1: Join Sets using update() Function****Method 2: Join Sets using union() Function**

- update() Function

**Function Name****update()**

**Syntax**

` ````
```set.update([func])

**Purpose****The main purpose of update() function is to****Update / Join****Data Value(s) in a Sets**

- union() Function

**Function Name****union()**

**Syntax**

` ````
```set.union([func])

**Purpose****The main purpose of union() function is to****Join****Data Value(s) in a Sets**

## Method 1: Join Sets using update() Function

- Example 1 – Join Sets using update() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Join Sets using update() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to join sets using update() function
'''
try:
# Initialize Sets
set_even_numbers = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20}
set_odd_numbers = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19}
print('---Original Set before Merging---')
print(set_even_numbers)
print(set_odd_numbers)
print('---New Set after Merging---')
# Using update() Function to Concatenate Sets
set_even_numbers.update(set_odd_numbers)
print(set_even_numbers)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before Merging---
{2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20}
{1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19}
---New Set after Merging---
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20}

## Method 2: Join Sets using union() Function

- Example 1 – Join Sets using union() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Join Sets using union() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to join sets using union() function
'''
try:
# Initialize Sets
set_even_numbers = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20}
set_odd_numbers = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19}
print('---Original Set before Merging---')
print(set_even_numbers)
print(set_odd_numbers)
print('---New Set after Merging---')
# Using union() Function to Concatenate Sets
natural_numbers = set_even_numbers.union(set_odd_numbers)
print(natural_numbers)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before Merging---
{2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20}
{1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19}
---New Set after Merging---
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20}

### TODO and Your Turn

Todo Tasks

Your Turn Tasks

Todo Tasks

**TODO Task 1**

**Task**- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below
- ages = {25, 30, 15, 20, 22, 33}

- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below
**Questions**- Merge Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)
- Method 1: Join Sets using update() Function
- Method 2: Join Sets using union() Function

- Merge Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)

Your Turn Tasks

**Your Turn Task 1**

**Task**- Consider two Sets (similar to the ones given in TODO Task 1) and answer the questions given below

**Question**- Merge Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)
- Method 1: Join Sets using update() Function
- Method 2: Join Sets using union() Function

- Merge Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)

## Operation 7 – Updation

- Methods of Updating a Set

**In Sha Allah, in next Slides, I will present a method to update a Set****Method 1: Update Set using update() Function**

- Example 1 - Update Set using update() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Update Set using update() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to update set using update() function
'''
# Approach I – Update two Sets using update() Function
try:
print('---Approach I - Update two Sets using update() Function---')
# Initialize Sets
set_even_numbers = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20}
set_odd_numbers = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19}
print('---Original Sets before Updating---')
print(set_even_numbers)
print(set_odd_numbers)
# Update Sets using update() Function
print('---New Set after Updating---')
set_even_numbers.update(set_odd_numbers)
print(set_even_numbers)
except:
print("Error Occurred")
print("----------------------------------------------------------")
# Approach II – Update more than two Sets using update() Function
try:
print('---Approach II - Update more than two Sets using update() Function---')
# Initialize Sets
set_even_numbers = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20}
set_odd_numbers = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19}
set_whole_number = {0}
print('---Original Sets before Updating---')
print(set_even_numbers)
print(set_odd_numbers)
# Update Sets using update() Function
print('---New Set after Updating---')
set_even_numbers.update(set_odd_numbers, set_whole_number)
print(set_even_numbers)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Approach I - Update two Sets using update() Function---
---Original Sets before Updating---
{2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20}
{1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19}
---New Set after Updating---
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20}
----------------------------------------------------------
---Approach II - Update more than two Sets using update() Function---
---Original Sets before Updating---
{2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20}
{1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19}
---New Set after Updating---
{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20}

### TODO and Your Turn

Todo Tasks

Your Turn Tasks

Todo Tasks

**TODO Task 1**

- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below
- ages = {25, 30, 15, 20, 22, 33}

**Questions**- Update Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)
- Method 1: Update Set using update() Function

- Update Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)

Your Turn Tasks

**Your Turn Task 1**

**Task**- Consider two Sets (similar to the ones given in TODO Task 1) and answer the questions given below

**Questions**- Update Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)
- Method 1: Update Set using update() Function

- Update Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)

## Operation 8 – Deletion

- Removing elements from a set

**In Sha Allah, in this Example, we will show how to delete a Set using following four approaches:****Approach 1:****Discard()****built-in Function****Approach 2:****Pop()****built-in Function****Approach 3:****Clear()****built-in Function****Approach 4:****Remove()****built-in Function**

- discard() Function

**Function Name****discard()**

**Syntax**

` ````
```set.discard([func])

**Purpose****The main purpose of discard() function is to****Remove****a****specific element****from the set**

- pop() Function

**Function Name****pop()**

**Syntax**

` ````
```set.pop()

**Purpose****The main purpose of pop() function is to****Remove****and returns a random element from the set**

- clear() Function

**Function Name****clear()**

**Syntax**

` ````
```set.clear()

**Purpose****The main purpose of clear() function is to****Remove****all elements****from the set**

- remove() Function

**Function Name****remove()**

**Syntax**

` ````
```set.remove([func])

**Purpose****The main purpose of remove() function is to****Remove****a****specific element****from the Set. If the specified element is not found, raise an error**

## Remove Specific Elements from Set using discard() Function

- Example 1 – Remove Specific Elements from Set using discard() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Remove Specific Elements from Set using discard() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to Remove Specific Elements from Set using discard() Function
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
print('---Original Set before using discard() Function---')
print(car_companies)
# Remove Specific Element from Set using discard() Function
print('---New Set after using discard() Function---')
car_companies.discard('Suzuki')
print(car_companies)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before using discard() Function---
{'Changan', 'Hyundai', 'Kia', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota'}
---New Set after using discard() Function---
{'Changan', 'Hyundai', 'Kia', 'Honda', 'Toyota'}

- Example 2 – Remove Specific Elements from Set using discard() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Remove Specific Elements from Set using discard() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to Remove Specific Elements from Set using discard() Function
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
print('---Original Set before using discard() Function---')
print(prime_numbers)
# Remove Specific Element from Set using discard() Function
print('---New Set after using discard() Function---')
prime_numbers.discard(13)
print(prime_numbers)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before using discard() Function---
{2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
---New Set after using discard() Function---
{2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 17, 19}

- Example 3 – Remove Specific Elements from Set using discard() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Remove Specific Elements from Set using discard() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to Remove Specific Elements from Set using discard() Function
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
vowels = { 'a','e','i','o','u'}
print('---Original Set before using discard() Function---')
print(vowels)
# Remove Specific Element from Set using discard() Function
print('---New Set after using discard() Function---')
vowels.discard('a')
print(vowels)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before using remove() Function---
{'e', 'i', 'u', 'o', 'a'}
---New Set after using remove() Function---
{'e', 'i', 'u', 'o'}

## Remove Random Elements from Set using pop() Function

- Example 1 – Remove Random Elements from Set using pop() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Remove Random Elements from Set using pop() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to Remove Random Elements from Set using pop() Function
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
print('---Original Set before using pop() Function---')
print(car_companies)
# Remove Random Element from Set using pop() Function
print('---New Set after using pop() Function---')
car_companies.pop()
print(car_companies)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before using pop() Function---
{'Suzuki', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia', 'Changan', 'Honda'}
---New Set after using pop() Function---
{'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia', 'Changan', 'Honda'}

- Example 2 – Remove Random Elements from Set using pop() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Remove Random Elements from Set using pop() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to Remove Random Elements from Set using pop() Function
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
print('---Original Set before using pop() Function---')
print(prime_numbers)
# Remove Random Element from Set using pop() Function
print('---New Set after using pop() Function---')
prime_numbers.pop()
print(prime_numbers)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before using pop() Function---
{2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
---New Set after using pop() Function---
{3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}

- Example 3 – Remove Random Elements from Set using pop() Function

` ````
```''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Remove Random Elements from Set using pop() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to Remove Random Elements from Set using pop() Function
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
vowels = { 'a','e','i','o','u'}
print('---Original Set before using pop() Function---')
print(vowels)
# Remove Random Element from Set using pop() Function
print('---New Set after using pop() Function---')
vowels.pop()
print(vowels)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before using pop() Function---
{'e', 'i', 'o', 'a', 'u'}
---New Set after using pop() Function---
{'i', 'o', 'a', 'u'}

## Remove Set using clear() Function

- Example 1 – Remove Set - Using clear() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Remove Set using clear() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to remove set using clear() function
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
print('---Original Set before using clear() Function---')
print(car_companies)
# Remove Set using clear() Function
print('---New Set after using clear() Function---')
car_companies.clear()
print(car_companies)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before using clear() Function---
{'Honda', 'Hyundai', 'Kia', 'Toyota', 'Changan', 'Suzuki'}
---New Set after using clear() Function---
set()

- Example 2 – Remove Set - Using clear() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Remove Set using clear() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to remove set using clear() function
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
print('---Original Set before using clear() Function---')
print(prime_numbers)
# Remove Set using clear() Function
print('---New Set after using clear() Function---')
prime_numbers.clear()
print(prime_numbers)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before using clear() Function---
{2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
---New Set after using clear() Function---
set()

- Example 3 – Remove Set - Using clear() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Remove Set using clear() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to remove set using clear() function
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
vowels = { 'a','e','i','o','u'}
print('---Original Set before using clear() Function---')
print(vowels)
# Remove Set using clear() Function
print('---New Set after using clear() Function---')
vowels.clear()
print(vowels)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before using clear() Function---
{'o', 'i', 'a', 'e', 'u'}
---New Set after using clear() Function---
set()

## Remove Specific Elements from Set using remove() Function

- Example 1 – Remove Specific Elements from Set using remove() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Remove Specific Elements from Set using remove() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to Remove Specific Elements from Set using remove() Function
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
print('---Original Set before using remove() Function---')
print(car_companies)
# Remove Specific Element from Set using remove() Function
print('---New Set after using remove() Function---')
car_companies.remove('Suzuki')
print(car_companies)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before using remove() Function---
{'Changan', 'Hyundai', 'Kia', 'Toyota', 'Honda', 'Suzuki'}
---New Set after using remove() Function---
{'Changan', 'Hyundai', 'Kia', 'Toyota', 'Honda'}

- Example 2 – Remove Specific Elements from Set using remove() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Remove Specific Elements from Set using remove() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to Remove Specific Elements from Set using remove() Function
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
print('---Original Set before using remove() Function---')
print(prime_numbers)
# Remove Specific Element from Set using remove() Function
print('---New Set after using remove() Function---')
prime_numbers.remove(5)
print(prime_numbers)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before using remove() Function---
{2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
---New Set after using remove() Function---
{2, 3, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}

- Example 3 – Remove Specific Elements from Set using remove() Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Remove Specific Elements from Set using remove() Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to Remove Specific Elements from Set using remove() Function
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
vowels = { 'a','e','i','o','u'}
print('---Original Set before using remove() Function---')
print(vowels)
# Remove Specific Element from Set using remove() Function
print('---New Set after using remove() Function---')
vowels.remove('i')
print(vowels)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Original Set before using remove() Function---
{'e', 'o', 'i', 'u', 'a'}
---New Set after using remove() Function---
{'e', 'o', 'u', 'a'}

### TODO and Your Turn

Todo Tasks

Your Turn Tasks

Todo Tasks

**TODO Task 1**

- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below
- ages = {25, 30, 15, 20, 22, 33}

**Questions**- Delete Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)
- Approach 1: Discard() built-in Function
- Approach 2: Pop() built-in Function
- Approach 3: Clear() built-in Function
- Approach 4: Remove() built-in Function

- Delete Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)

Your Turn Tasks

**Your Turn Task 1**

**Task**- Consider two Sets (similar to the ones given in TODO Task 1) and answer the questions given below

**Questions**- Delete Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)
- Approach 1: Discard() built-in Function
- Approach 2: Pop() built-in Function
- Approach 3: Clear() built-in Function
- Approach 4: Remove() built-in Function

- Delete Elements from Sets using following approaches (as shown in this Chapter)

## Nested Sets

- Nested Sets

**Question****Can you have nested sets in Python?**

**Answer****Nested sets cannot contain mutable values including sets.**

**Solution****Frozenset****A frozenset is very similar to a set except that a frozenset is immutable.**

## Frozen Sets

- Frozen Sets

**Definition****A frozen set in Python is like a combination of tuples and sets.****Frozen sets cannot be added or removed once created****forzenset() takes input as any iterable object and converts them into an immutable object. The order of elements is not guaranteed to be preserved**

**Purpose****Frozenset object are****immutable****they are mainly used as****key****in****dictionary****or elements of other sets****They are used to carry out mathematical set operations**

**Characteristics****A frozen set has the following characteristics:****No Duplication****Unordered****Immutable**

**Syntax****The Syntax to declare a Sets is as follows:**

` ````
```frozenset(iterable)

- Example 1 – Initialize a Frozen Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Initialize a Frozen Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to initialize a frozen set and display its content (data values) on the Output Screen
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
# Convert Set to Frozen Set
frozensets = frozenset(car_companies)
# Display Data Values of a Frozenset
print("Data Values of Frozenset:", frozensets)
# Display Data-Type of a Frozenset using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Frozenset:", type(frozensets))
# Display Length of a Frozenset using len() Function
print("Length of Frozenset:", len(frozensets))
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```Data Values of Frozenset: frozenset({'Toyota', 'Honda', 'Suzuki', 'Kia', 'Changan', 'Hyundai'})
Data-Type of Frozenset:
Length of Frozenset: 6

- Example 2 – Initialize a Frozen Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Initialize a Frozen Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to initialize a frozen set and display its content (data values) on the Output Screen
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
# Convert Set to Frozen Set
frozensets = frozenset(prime_numbers)
# Display Data Values of a Frozenset
print("Data Values of Frozenset:", frozensets)
# Display Data-Type of a Frozenset using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Frozenset:", type(frozensets))
# Display Length of a Frozenset using len() Function
print("Length of Frozenset:", len(frozensets))
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```Data Values of Frozenset: frozenset({2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19})
Data-Type of Frozenset:
Length of Frozenset: 8

- Example 3 – Initialize a Frozen Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Initialize a Frozen Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 29-Jun-2022
end_data = 3-Jul-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to initialize a frozen set and display its content (data values) on the Output Screen
'''
try:
# Initialize a Set
vowels = { 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u'}
# Convert Set to Frozen Set
frozensets = frozenset(vowels)
# Display Data Values of a Frozenset
print("Data Values of Frozenset:", frozensets)
# Display Data-Type of a Frozenset using type() Function
print("Data-Type of Frozenset:", type(frozensets))
# Display Length of a Frozenset using len() Function
print("Length of Frozenset:", len(frozensets))
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```Data Values of Frozenset: frozenset({'a', 'o', 'u', 'i', 'e'})
Data-Type of Frozenset:
Length of Frozenset: 5

## Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set

- Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set

**We****cannot access individual values****in a frozen set. We can only****access****all the elements****together****by****looping****through the frozen****set**

- Example 1 - Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to access element(s) of a Frozen Set
'''
try:
car_companies = {'Changan', 'Suzuki', 'Honda', 'Toyota', 'Hyundai', 'Kia'}
# Convert Set to Frozen Set
frozensets = frozenset(car_companies)
# Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set by Iterating through Elements Altogether
print("---Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set by Iterating through Elements---")
for elements in frozensets:
print(elements)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set by Iterating through Elements---
Honda
Hyundai
Suzuki
Changan
Kia
Toyota

- Example 2 - Access Element(s) of a Set

` ````
```''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to access element(s) of a Frozen Set
'''
try:
prime_numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
# Convert Set to Frozen Set
frozensets = frozenset(prime_numbers)
# Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set by Iterating through Elements Altogether
print("---Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set by Iterating through Elements---")
for elements in frozensets:
print(elements)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set by Iterating through Elements---
2
3
5
7
11
13
17
19

- Example 3 - Access Element(s) of a Set

` ````
```''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to access element(s) of a Frozen Set
'''
try:
vowels = { 'a','e','i','o','u'}
# Convert Set to Frozen Set
frozensets = frozenset(vowels)
# Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set by Iterating through Elements Altogether
print("---Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set by Iterating through Elements---")
for elements in frozensets:
print(elements)
except:
print("Error Occurred")

` ````
```---Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set by Iterating through Elements---
e
i
u
a
o

## Operations on Frozen Sets

- Operations of Frozen Sets

**Since frozenset is immutable, there are no methods available to alter its elements. So add(), remove(), update(), pop() etc. functions are not defined for frozenset**

### TODO and Your Turn

Todo Tasks

Your Turn Tasks

Todo Tasks

**TODO Task 1**

**Task**- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below
- ages = {25, 30, 15, 20, 22, 33}

- Consider the following two Sets and answer the questions given below
**Questions**- Create and Access Elements from Sets using frozensset() Function (as shown in this Chapter)

Your Turn Tasks

**Your Turn Task 1**

**Task**- Consider two Sets (similar to the ones given in TODO Task 1) and answer the questions given below

**Questions**- Create and Access Elements from Sets using frozensset() Function (as shown in this Chapter)

## Pass Set to a Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Pass Set to a Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to pass set to a Function and display the result on the Output Screen
'''
def set_of_characters(characters):
print("---Set of Special Characters---")
for character in characters:
print(character)
if __name__ == "__main__": # main() Function
try:
# Initializing a Set
characters = {'*','@','#','$','&'}
# Function Call
set_of_characters(characters)
except ValueError:
print("Error! Enter Valid Values")

` ````
```---Set of Special Characters---
@
*
$
&
#

### TODO and Your Turn

Todo Tasks

Your Turn Tasks

Todo Tasks

**TODO Task 1**

**Task**- Consider the Sets and answer the questions given below
- marks = {90, 80, 75, 80, 62, 53}

- Consider the Sets and answer the questions given below
**Questions**- Pass the given Sets to a Function (as shown in this Chapter)

Your Turn Tasks

**Your Turn Task 1**

**Task**- Consider two Sets (similar to the ones given in TODO Task 1) and answer the questions given below

**Questions**- Pass the given Sets to a Function (as shown in this Chapter)

# Pass Frozen Set to a Function

` ````
```'''
Author and System Information
author_name = Ms. Samavi Salman
program_name = Pass Frozen Set to a Function
programming_language = Python
operating_system = Windows 10
ide = Jupyter Notebook
licence = public_domain_1.0
start_date = 21-Jun-2022
end_data = 21-Jun-2022
'''
'''
Purpose of Program
The main purpose of the program is to pass frozen set to a function and display the result on the Output Screen
'''
def set_of_characters(characters):
print("---Set of Special Characters---")
for character in characters:
print(character)
if __name__ == "__main__": # main() Function
try:
# Initializing a Set
characters = {'*','@','#','$','&'}
# Convert Set to Frozen Set
frozensets = frozenset(characters)
# Function Call
set_of_characters(frozensets)
except ValueError:
print("Error! Enter Valid Values")

` ````
```---Set of Special Characters---
$
*
#
&
@

### TODO and Your Turn

Todo Tasks

Your Turn Tasks

Todo Tasks

**TODO Task 1**

**Task**- Consider the Set and answer the questions given below
- marks = {90, 80, 75, 80, 62, 53}

- Consider the Set and answer the questions given below
**Questions**- Pass the given Frozen Sets to a Function (as shown in this Chapter)

Your Turn Tasks

**Your Turn Task 1**

**Task**- Consider two Sets (similar to the ones given in TODO Task 1) and answer the questions given below

**Questions**- Pass the given Frozen Sets to a Function (as shown in this Chapter)

## Chapter Summary

- Chapter Summary

**In ****this ****Chapter, I presented the following main concepts:**

**Sets****Definition****The set—an****unordered****and****unindexed collection****of****unique****and****immutable****objects that****supports****operations corresponding to****mathematical set theory****. An item appears only****once****in a****set****,****no matter****how many****times****it is****added**

**Set Declaration****A Set can be declared using two methods****Method 1: Use {}****Method 2: Use set() Function**

**Initializing a Set****Following two Methods are used for set initialization****Method 1: Building a Complete Set****Method 2: Building a Set Incrementally**

**Access Element(s) of a Set****We****cannot access individual values****in a set. We can only****access****all the elements****together****by****looping****through the****set**

**Operations on Set****Operation 1 – Creation****Operation 2 – Insertion****Operation 3 – Traversal****Operation 4 – Searching****Operation 5 – Sorting****Operation 6 – Merging****Operation 7 – Updation****Operation 8 – Deletion**

**Nested Sets****Question****Can you have nested sets in Python?**

**Answer****Nested sets cannot contain mutable values including sets.**

**Solution****Frozenset****A frozenset is very similar to a set except that a frozenset is immutable.**

**Frozen Sets****Definition****A frozen set in Python is like a combination of tuples and sets.****Frozen sets cannot be added or removed once created****forzenset() takes input as any iterable object and converts them into an immutable object. The order of elements is not guaranteed to be preserved**

**Access Element(s) of a Frozen Set****We****cannot access individual values****in a frozen set. We can only****access****all the elements****together****by****looping****through the frozen****set**

**Operations of Frozen Sets**

## In Next Chapter

- In Next Chapter

- In Sha Allah, in the next Chapter, I will present a detailed discussion on

- File Handling in Python